Dr. N.C. Sarkar and K. Silvas Jebakumar Prince

Seed is the most important inevitable input for productive agriculture. In the last four decades, India has made significant advances in agriculture where the role of the seed sector is substantial. In comparison to the total Global seed market (US$ 21 billion per annum), though Indian seed business attains to the approximate level of 900 million (Rs 4000 crores), however its expected upsurge growth is must in near future. In recent times, Dr M. S. Swaminathan, an eminent scientist, has highlighted India's potential in this respect and estimated that India can capture one-fourth of the world business in seeds, transforming rural employment, income and poverty. So, students in agriculture have an unlimited prospect in this growing industry to explore and contribute a high to bloom farming community.

Employment opportunities for agricultural subjects:
Agriculture is composed of a vast of subjects that includes fully or partly the elements of the basic sciences. Seed industry is a harbour of all major subjects of agriculture that blends the success of seed business. The subjects include as below-

1. Genetics & plant breeding: Release of quality cultivars needs a confirmed assurance from qualified students from this department. Breeding is a creation of variation is strength for any seed producing organization. The qualified breeder should have a creative and selective eye towards selecting plants for breeding programmes. Students from this department have a good opportunity because of fundamental knowledge during course of study.
2. Agronomy: Agronomy subject is used to call as mother of agriculture that teaches all fundamental aspects of agriculture. Before release of the new hybrid seeds or varieties, it is mandatory for the seed producers to test the new cultivars for multilocation trials to understand the their adaptabilities in different agro-climatic conditions. It is most important for the countries like India, which have wide variability of the soil as well as climatic parameters. Agronomists also have opportunity to look after the seed production unit, where agronomic managements confirm the quality of seeds and productivity.
3. Entomology: Damage of crop by insect-pests is common to any crop environment. The entomologist will design crop wise admissible insect levels, various crop protection techniques (Laboratory & Screening methods) and crop - insect specific control measures. Each new hybrid has to be tested for their resistance to the economic pests both in lab and field condition through trials.
4. Agricultural Biotechnology Biotechnology has paved the way for the introduction of transgenic crops. Biotechnologists can determine seed quality parameters faster through simpler molecular techniques and Genetic marker studies. They also play a major role in determination of seed purity, occurrence of resistance genes (for both biotic and abiotic stress), confirmation of transferred genes through crosses done in field conditions and particularly in characterizing evolved hybrids on molecular levels.
5. Seed Technology Seed technologists have great responsibilities to monitor supply of best quality seeds, production. Quality testing for different parameters like germinations, physical purity, moisture contents are need to be assessed and maintained to a certain standards prescribed on Seed act before final packaging for marketing. Students from this department can take a lead in this regard.
6. Plant Pathology Disease is one of the major constraints in getting high yields or quality products, the intensity of which varies across the seasons and agro-climatic conditions. Pathologists have a major role to take the challenge to find out the feasible solutions. They need to study the level of tolerance/ resistance of newly developed hybrids before their release for marketing.
7. Soil Science Students from soil science also have enough opportunity in the seed industry in studying the plant-soil relation and their interactions. Their fundamental knowledge can pave the way for in-depth analysis on adaptability of hybrids in different soil types.

Educational level/ Degree required:
Students who have completed doctorate or masters in specialized subjects have ample opportunity to enter into the research level, which is the key strength of any seed industry. However, marketing is also another scope for masters. Moreover, this depends purely on level of interests of profession they used to prefer.
Agriculture graduate on the other hand, can opt marketing or production. They have least opportunity to enter into the research as they lack the field of any specialization.
However graduate can find better opportunity and monetary benefits in marketing or strategic management after completion of management degree/ diploma.

Entrance examination: 
- XII students interested for agriculture subjects, have to appear ICAR (Indian Council of Agricultural Research) entrance test for getting admission at graduation in agril. university all over the country. Besides, universities also conduct their own entrance tests
- Similarly, agril. graduates who are interested for masters have to appear ICAR-led Junior Research Fellowship (JRF) examination and to get higher rank to opt for good institutions.
- Masters students can take admission in PhD in same university or can appear IARI-led all India examination.

Reputed agricultural institutes:
1) Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi. It is a premier agriculture institute in India and has international reputation. IARI is a deemed university and has only post-graduate studies (Masters & doctorates) with limited seats. For getting admission in master degree, B.Sc. agricultural graduates need to get rank in top order in JRF-examination. For doctoral programme, IARI-PhD entrance (open for all India competition) will be conducted.
2) G.B.Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar, Uttaranchal. It is the first agricultural university in India, has a good reputation in this technical field. All the agricultural subjects are taught here.
3) Punjab Agriculture University, Ludhiana, Punjab. The university has outstanding achievements in agricultural research, education and extension.
4) CCS Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana HAU has international repute for its advances in high yielding crops.
5) Acharya NG Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Andhra Pradesh It is also one of the reputed university having 13 colleges in Agriculture, Veterinary, Home Science, Agricultural Engineering, Fisheries Science and Polytechnics Website:
6) University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka It has a multiple research centers and good infrastructures in the field of agriculture. Website:
7) Bidhan Chandra Krishi Vidyalaya, Mohanpur, West Bengal The university is one of the pioneer institutes of Agricultural Education, Research and Extension.
8) Orissa University of Agriculture & Technology, Bhubaneshwar, Orissa It is also one of the oldest agricultural institutes in India
9) Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya , Jabalpur, Orissa JNKV has good reputation in the agricultural research. Website:
10) Tamilnadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu. It is also one of the oldest reputed Agricultural University dealing with multidisciplinary departments, especially in Plant breeding and genetics. Website: