Horticulture is the main stream of agriculture. The term "Horticulture" is derived from the Latin 'hortus' (garden) and culture(cultivation), which means garden cultivation. Horticulture is the branch of agricultural plant sciences that deals with the production of fruits, vegetable, nuts and ornamentals. It is a major source of food and employment. Operationally, there are several divisions of horticulture: pomology, arboriculture, and landscape architect etc. Modern and scientific horticulture began in 1928 when Imperial Council of Agricultural Research later named as Indian Council of Agricultural Research was constituted. Research centers were established through this council in every state. The research work is done at every centre. At present there are about 29 agricultural universities in our country where horticultural education and research is being carried out. It accounts for food from three major sources: Vegetable, fruits and nuts.


Horticulture provides a wide variety of jobs for many categories of people, directly or indirectly: Direct Jobs : A large number of jobs require knowledge and training in horticulture. The level of training could be vocational or at the college level. The work may be indoors or outdoors. Many jobs in horticulture require diploma or degree in horticulture or agriculture. A college education provides more indepth knowledge of the field and offers job opportunities at supervisory or managerial levels and to conduct research. At present there are about 29 agricultural universities in our country where horticultural education and research is being carried out.


1. In Govt. Jobs
(a) For M.Sc. Ag (Horticulture) and Ph.D in Horticulture
(i) Scientist: Examination conducted by the Agriculture Scientist Recruitment Board, ICAR New Delhi offers opportunities for scientist.
(ii) In Education: Lecturer, Reader, Assistant Professor, Associate Professor in Agriculture Universities and Colleges.
(iii) Training Organizer & Training Associate in Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK)
(b) For Graduate (Horticulture/Agriculture) :
(i) Civil Services : Examination conducted by Union Public Service Commission (U.P.S.C) for IAS/IFS (Civil Service & Allied ).
(ii) As District Horticulture Officer/District Agriculture Officer through Examination conducted by State Public Service Commission.
(iii) Technical Assistant/Technical Officer in Agriculture Universities, ICAR, DRDO, IARI & CSIR.
(iv) Horticulture Inspector/Fruit & Vegetable Inspector/ Marketing Inspector
(v) Training Assistant in Krishi Vigyan Kendra(KVK).
(vi) Farm Supervisor.
(vii) Section Officer (Horticulture/Landscaping), Horticulturist or Supervisor (Horticulture).
(viii)Agriculture Development Officer.
(ix) Village Level Worker.
(x) Agriculture Inspector.

2. Private Sector:
(i) As Horticulturist/Horticulture Officer or Supervisor (Landscape) in Industries, Farm Houses, Hotels, Golf Courses & Construction Companies etc.
(ii) As Horticulture officer in processing companies of agriculture production.
(iii) Marketing Job also in pesticides and insecticides companies.

(i) As Horticulture Consultant provide advice, design, evaluation, supervision of garden or orchard etc. (ii) You can start the Agriculture clinic. Government provides money (up to Rs. 10.00 Lac) for this work.
(iii) Raise commercial nursery of fruit plants, flower and ornamental plants
(iv) Seed producer of vegetables and flower crops.
(v) Fruit/Vegetable/Flower grower
(vi) Floral decorator/florist shop
(vii) Horticulture Services Contractor
(viii) Mushroom grower
(ix) Seed dealer/Merchant
(x) Proprietor-cold storage
(xi) Processing work of Horticulture production
(xii) You can start/establish an institute for vocational education (Horticulture/Landscape)

INDIRECT JOBS : The ornamental industry has spawned a number of supporting or service industries :
(1) RESEARCH: Many scientists are engaged in developing new and improve types of vegetables, fruits and ornamentals. Apart from improving the agronomic and nutritional qualities of plants, horticultural scientists also devote considerable time to improve the aesthetics of ornamentals and the quality of products.
(2) CHEMICAL INDUSTRY: The horticulture industry depends on large amounts and varieties of chemicals, including fertilizers, pesticides and growth hormones. Many companies are involved in producing chemicals that are used to enhance plant production and the quality of produce.
(3) MACHINERY: The engineers design and produce tools and machinery for use in the production of horticultural plants. Machinery and implements are available for preparing, harvesting, storing and packaging. These aids enable large scale production of horticultural plants to be undertaken.
(4) DISTRIBUTION: Horticultural products are transported from the areas of production to marketing outlets. Because of their largely perishable nature, horticulture produce and product require special handling on transportation to retain their quality for along time.

Now, computers are widely used in the horticulture field. Special areas of computer application in horticulture include :- Designing plans, crop modeling, soil modeling, equipment automation, public information, record keeping and databases, Expert systems, Communication, sensor technology and internet service etc. Computer technology has significant applications in horticulture. Green house automation and equipment calibration for automatic application of chemicals.

(The author "Randhir Singh Sehrawat" is horticulture consultant)Enews